BOLD human responses to chromatic spatial features
Castaldi E., Frijia F., Montanaro D., Tosetti M., Morrone M.C.
Animal physiological and human psychophysical studies suggest that an early step in visual processing involves the detection and identification of features such as lines and edges, by neural mechanisms with even‐ and odd‐symmetric receptive fields. Functional imaging studies also demonstrate mechanisms with even‐ and odd‐receptive fields in early visual areas, in response to luminance‐modulated stimuli. In this study we measured fMRI BOLD responses to 2‐D stimuli composed of only even or only odd symmetric features, and to an amplitude‐matched random noise control, modulated in red–green equiluminant colour contrast. All these stimuli had identical power but different phase spectra, either highly congruent (even or odd symmetry stimuli) or random (noise). At equiluminance, V 1 BOLD activity showed no preference between congruent‐ and random‐phase stimuli, as well as no preference between even and odd symmetric stimuli. Areas higher in the visual hierarchy, both along the dorsal pathway (caudal part of the intraparietal sulcus, dorsal LO and V 3A ) and the ventral pathway (V 4), responded preferentially to odd symmetry over even symmetry stimuli, and to congruent over random phase stimuli. Interestingly, V 1 showed an equal increase in BOLD activity at each alternation between stimuli of different symmetry, suggesting the existence of specialised mechanisms for the detection of edges and lines such as even‐ and odd‐chromatic receptive fields. Overall the results indicate a high selectivity of colour‐selective neurons to spatial phase along both the dorsal and the ventral pathways in humans.